If you are home, but without power, the food issue is something you need to be prepared for. You’ll have a lot of options though.
The first priority is probably to use up whatever you can from your fridge/freezer. When that runs out, the big issues become how much food you have stored for emergencies, and how much water you have access to. You can assure a good supply of water by filling a 55-gallon drum with water and keeping it in your garage or a shed. You do need to consider water quality, so you can either add bleach or another additive for long term storage, or you can change the water out at regular intervals, probably every 4-6 months. If you use something like a backpacking water filter, or other pump-and-filter combo, that will remove most of the bleach when you want to use the water and it provides an easy way to get it out of the barrel.
If you have either a 55-gallon drum, or your water is still safe to drink, then the best long term food storage choice is probably freeze-dried. Several companies, including Mountain House and AlpineAire, make a wide array of freeze-dried foods available either in single serving packages, or in large, multi-serving #10 cans filled with nitrogen.
The single serving packages are rated for 5 years of storage, and the #10 cans for at least 20 years, if not longer. Mountain House claims they have used cans over 30 years old without degradation. There are many choices available, including breakfast and dessert foods. The #10 cans provide ~10-20 servings per can, depending on the item, and they will keep essentially indefinitely. This means you can easily store weeks worth of food for a whole family in very little space as long as you have water available.
You do need hot water, so some heat source is still a requirement. Note: do not, under any circumstances, eat these products “dry”. It may seem like a good idea at the time if you don’t have water, but you will be sorry. They will pull water out of your system once they are in your stomach, and you’ll end up pretty sick.
The downsides to the freeze-dried food are that you do need a reliable supply of hot water, and that they are comparatively expensive. A ten day supply for a whole family is a little under $500. On the other hand, you’ll only have to spend that money once in 30 years. They take up sufficiently little space that the companies sell year’s supply packages. Most people probably don’t need quite that quantity, however.
If you have a decent water supply, pasta is a good choice, since it will keep for long periods, and is relatively calorie-dense.
All the foods discussed for an evacuation emergency situation still apply to the disaster at home scenario as well, although with fewer constraints you can store tastier, more satisfying food. Canned beans, vegetables, and fruits are good choices for your at-home kit, since they will happily sit for years at the back of your pantry, and are calorie-dense and don’t require extra water. However, you should try to use the perishables from your pantry before resorting to cans.
Things like onions, potatoes, and apples will keep for weeks, but not indefinitely, so they, along with the contents of your fridge/freezer should come first.
Another thing to consider when planning an at-home kit is that your neighbors are probably not as prepared as you are, and may come calling if the emergency lasts very long, particularly if they know you are a preparedness type. It never hurts to have extra canned food on hand.
If you have water, it’s probably a good idea to keep a supply of coffee and tea. Those will help with caffeine issues, as well as being something comforting in times of stress.
One other thing to consider is vitamins. Many places that sell “survival food” also sell vitamins that have a 10-year shelf life. These would be a good addition to your home kit, since depending on what’s in your kit you may need vitamin supplements. If your home kit consists mainly of canned beans and SPAM, storing some vitamins may be a good idea.
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